Wednesday, November 30, 2016

Acupuncture Found to Reduce Episodic Migraine

  A Cochrane database review of 22 trials with 4,985 participants revealed an apparent reduction in headache frequency in patients with episodic migraine. By this review acupuncture reduced headache frequency more than prophylactic drugs (but not at the six month follow up).
Ann Int Med 2016;165(8):JC44
Additional reference : JAMA 2017 Feb20

Caspase-2 a NEW potential Target in the Treatment of Alzheimer's

  Researchers at the University of Minnesota reported that capsase-2 , cuts the full length TAU protein (which accumulates in the brains of patients with AD and is neurotoxic) into fragments. These pieces of protein adversely affect synaptic signaling in dendritic spines directly leading to cognitive impairments in mice. These fragments PRECEDE the formation of aggregated TAU suggesting that the tangles seen are NOT the cause of AD. In fact the memory problems seen in these experimental mice occur BEFORE brain loss suggesting that blocking caspase-2 could be used to treat Alzheimer's disease.
Nat Med 2015:Epub 2016 Oct 10

Saturday, November 19, 2016

Obesity Is BAD for your Health....Duh...AND MS

  Obesity (BMI over 30) and those overweight (BMI 25-30) affects 46% of Americans over the age of 15 compared to 17% globally.
  Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, greater brain atrophy and white matter changes, disturbances in the blood-brain barrier, and an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. In multiple sclerosis, obesity/overweight in childhood and adolescence is a risk factor for pediatric and adult-onset MS. This is true for both sexes but is more pronounced in females. (Lancet Neurol 2014;13(9);913-923)

Treatment Therapies For Fatigue In MS

  Primary fatigue (unique to multiple sclerosis) involves no precipitating activity, is worsened by heat or humidity, and is worse in the early afternoon. 40 % of MS patients report it as their most disabling symptom. This fatigue may be constant in 30 % of affected individuals.
  The cause of primary fatigue is unknown.
  Treatment options include : cooling, aerobic and strength training, energy conservation, mindfulness, relaxation therapy, magnetic therapy, transcranial stimulation, and drugs.
  Drug therapy to treat fatigue include : amantadine, modafinil, armodafinil, gingko biloba, methylphenidate and amphetamines.
  Comorbid conditions must be addressed : depression, anemia, thyroid disease, disrupted sleep, medication side effects, motor disability with increased energy use. (Continuum 2016;22(3):815-836

Fatigue In MS

   Fatigue is an overwhelming sense of tiredness and is often considered the leading symptom in multiple sclerosis.     Significant fatigue in isolation may precede a diagnosis by several years (Mult Scler 2013;19(11):1526-1532)
  Fatigue at the time of a first attack of MS (CIS) independently predicts a diagnosis of MS (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiaty 2015;86(5):543-546

Friday, November 18, 2016

Pregnant Women That Take Tylenol Induce Psychopathology In Their Children

  Prenatal acetaminophen was found to be associated with increased risks of psychopathology such as conduct problems, hyperactivity problems and emotional symptoms (ADHD). (JAMA Pediatr 2016 Aug 15;[pub])
  Common causes for taking acetaminophen during pregnancy include infection and fever both of which can produce epigenetic and brain changes according to an animal study. (Biol Psychiatry 2016 Aug 12;[e-pub])
  Animal data also reveal that prenatal acetaminophen, even without inflammation, can disrupt neurodevelopment. (Toxicol Sci 2014;138-139)
  These studies suggest there should be increased efforts to vaccinate women against influenza and to encourage them to avoid exposure to flu infected individuals.